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Vacuum Reflow Roldering

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1Introduction

Where the soldering of electronic PCBs is concerned, the use of vacuum is focused primarily on removing volatile substances from the solder joints and the associated reduction of voids. Reasons for this include increasingly strict requirements with regard to the quality and reliability of electronic products, as well as higher current densities (e.g. in power modules) and the larger power losses resulting therefrom. Some modules have already reached power loss levels of greater than 200 W per square cm. Voids are highly obstructive for heat dissipation and are thus undesirable in power applications.
Voids are gas bubbles which occur due to outgassing from, for example, flux residues and by- products of chemical interactions. Experience gained during the course of process development has shown that underpressure of less than 50 mbar in proximity to the molten solder is sufficient for a significant reduction in the number of voids.

Figure 1 shows high-brightness LED solder joints after soldering without vacuum. A comparison of the two images makes it plainly apparent that with a vacuum of 10 mbar the number of pores and their surface area has been drastically minimized. In the event of solder joints with large surface areas, as is the case for instance with LEDs, QFNs and Si chips, a smaller number of voids results in improved thermal performance as well as less tilting of the component.


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