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here are numerous basic electronic components that are used for building electronic circuits. Without these components, circuit designs are never complete or didn’t function well. These components include resistors, diodes, capacitors, integrated circuits, and so on. Some of these components consist of two or more terminals that are soldered to circuit boards. Some may be packaged types like integrated circuits in which different semiconductor devices are integrated. Here is a brief overview of each of these basic electronic components and you can get in-depth information by clicking links attached to each component.
Electronic components are basic discrete devices in any electronic system to use in electronics otherwise different associated fields. These components are basic elements that are used to design electrical and electronic circuits. These components have a minimum of two terminals which are used to connect to the circuit. The classification of electronic components can be done based on applications like active, passive, and electromechanical.Major Electronic Components
In designing an electronic circuit following are taken into consideration:
These components are used to amplify electrical signals to generate electric power. The functioning of these components can be done like an AC circuit within electronic devices to protect from voltage and enhanced power. An active component executes its functions because it is power-driven through an electricity source. All these components require some energy source that is normally removed from a DC circuit. Any quality type of active component will include an oscillator, IC (integrated circuit) & transistor.
These types of components cannot use mesh energy into the electronic circuit because they don’t rely on a power source, excluding what is accessible from the AC circuit they are allied to. As a result, they cannot amplify, although they can increase a current otherwise voltage or current. These components mainly include two-terminals like resistors, inductors, transformers & capacitors.
These components use an electrical signal to make some mechanical changes like rotating a motor. Generally, these components use electrical current to form a magnetic field so that physical movement can be caused. Different types of switches and relays are applicable in these kinds of components. The devices which have the process of electrical as well as mechanical are electromechanical devices. An electromechanical component is operated manually to generate electrical output through the mechanical movement.
These components can store or maintains energy either in the form of current or voltage. Some of these components are discussed below.
A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronics component, used to oppose or limit the current. Resistor works based on the principle of Ohm’s law which states that “voltage applied across the terminals of a resistor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it”
The units of the resistance are ohms
Where R is the constant called resistance
Resistors are further classified based on the following specifications such as the power rating, type of material used, and resistance value. These resistor types are used for different applications.
This type of resistor is used to set the right conditions in an electronic circuit. The values of resistance in fixed resistors are determined during the design phase of the circuit, based on this there is no need to adjust the circuit.
A device that is used to change the resistance according to our requirements in an electronic circuit is known as a variable resistor. These resistors comprise a fixed resistor element and a slider that taps on to the resistor element. Variable resistors are commonly used as a three-terminal device for calibration of the device.
A capacitor made from two conductive plates with an insulator between them and it stores electrical energy in the form of an electric field. A capacitor blocks the DC signals and allows the AC signals and also used with a resistor in a timing circuit.
The stored charge is Q=CV
C is the capacitance of a capacitor and
V is the applied voltage.Capacitor Components
These capacitors are of different types like film, ceramic, electrolytic, and variable capacitors. For finding its value number and color-coding methods are used and it also possible to find the capacitance value with LCR meters.
An inductor is also referred to as an AC resistor which stores electrical energy in the form of magnetic energy. It resists the changes in the current and the standard unit of inductance is Henry. The capability of producing magnetic lines is referred to as inductance.
The inductance of the inductor is given as L= (µ.K.N2.S)/I.
‘L’ is inductance,
‘µ’ is Magnetic permeability,
‘K’ is a magnetic coefficient,
‘S’ is the cross-section area of the coil,
‘N’ is the number of turns of the coils,
And ‘I’ is the length of the coil in the axial direction.Inductor Components
Other passive electronic components include different types of sensors, motors, antennas, memristors, etc. To reducing the complexity of this article few of the passive components are discussed above.
These components rely on a source of energy and are able to control the electron flow through them. Some of these components are semiconductors like diodes, transistors, integrated circuits, various displays like LCD, LED, CRTs, and power sources like batteries, PV cells, and other AC and DC supply sources.
A diode is a device that allows current to flow in one direction and usually made with the semiconductor material. It has two terminals, anode and cathode terminals. These are mostly used in converting circuits like AC to DC circuits. These are of different types like PN diodes, Zener diodes, LEDs, photodiodes, etc.Diodes
A transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device. Mostly it is used as a switching device and also as an amplifier. This switching device can be voltage or current controlled. By controlling the voltage applied to the one terminal controls the current flow through the other two terminals. Transistors are of two types, namely bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and field-effect transistors (FET). And further, these can be PNP and NPN transistors.Transistors
An Integrated circuit is a special component that is fabricated with thousands of transistors, resistors, diodes, and other electronic components on a tiny silicon chip. These are the building blocks of current electronic devices like cell phones, computers, etc. These can be analog or digital integrated circuits. Mostly used ICs in electronic circuits are Op-amps, timers, comparators, switches ICs, and so on. These can be classified as linear and nonlinear ICs depending on its application.Integrated Circuits
LCD: A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat display technology, which is mostly used in applications like computer monitors, cell phone displays, calculators, etc. This technology uses two polarized filters and electrodes to selectively disable or enable the light to pass from reflective backing to the eyes of the viewer.LCD
The display like 16X2 LCD is the most frequently used module in electrical as well as electronic circuits. This kind of display includes 2 rows and 16 columns so it is known as an alphanumeric display. This kind of display is used to show the highest of 32 characters. Please refer to this link to know more about 16 X 2 LCD
Cathode ray tube display technology is mostly used in televisions and computer screens that work on the movement of an electron beam back and forth on the back of the screen. This tube is an elongated vacuum tube in which the flattened surface has external components as an electron gun, electron beam, and a phosphorescent screen.Cathode Ray Tube
The different power sources used in the circuits are DC power supply and batteries.
In electronic circuits, the DC power supply is very essential which is used as one kind of power source. The major electronic components work with DC power supply because it is a consistent power source. Different power supplies used in the circuit to provide the supply are AC to DC, SMPS, linear regulators, etc. A wall adapter is used as an alternate to the DC power supply in some projects which require 5V otherwise 12V.
The battery is one kind of electrical energy storage device. This device is used to change the energy from chemical to electrical to supply the power to various electronic devices like mobile phones, flashlights, laptops, etc.
These consist of one or more cells and each cell contains an anode, cathode, and electrolyte. Batteries are available in various sizes which are also divided into primary as well as secondary. Primary types are used until they discharge the power & throw away them afterward whereas secondary batteries can also be used even after they discharged The batteries used in the circuits are 1.5V AA type otherwise 9V PP3 type.Batteries
An electromagnetic switch like the relay is used to operate the circuits electronically otherwise electromechanically. A relay uses less amount of currents to operate so generally they are used to change low currents within a control circuit. But relays can also be used for controlling high electric currents. A relay switch can be operated through a less current to switch ON a different circuit. These are either solid-state or electromechanical relays.
An EMR or electromechanical relay includes a coil, frame, contacts, and armature, spring. In the relay, this frame gives support to different parts & an armature is a moving part. A copper wire or coil is wounded around a metal rod to produce a magnetic field that moves the armature. The conducting parts like contacts are used to close and open the circuit.
An SSR or solid-state relay can be built with three circuits like input, output & control circuit. The input circuit is the same as a coil, the control circuit works like a coupling device among the circuits like input & output & finally, the output circuit acts like the contacts within an electromechanical relay. These relays are very popular because they are inexpensive, reliable, and very fast as compared with electromechanical relays.
The term LED stands for light-emitting diode. It is a semiconductor device used to emit light whenever a current supply flows through it. In the semiconductor material, the charge carriers like electrons and holes combine then light can be generated. When light generates in the solid semiconductor material then these LEDs can be known as solid-state devices.
The materials used to manufacture the LEDs are InGaN (Indium Gallium Nitride), these are high-brightness LEDs and available in green, blue, and ultraviolet colors. AlGaInP (Aluminum Gallium Indium Phosphate), are high-brightness LEDs and available in orange, yellow, and red colors. GaP (Gallium Phosphide) is available in green and yellow colors.
The applications of LEDs includes from cell phones to the large display boards which are used for advertising purpose and also used in magical light bulbs At present, the usage of these devices is increasing quickly because of their extraordinary properties. These devices are extremely tiny in size & use less power.
A microcontroller is one kind of IC designed to execute a specific task within an embedded system. It comprises a memory, processor & I/O peripherals on a chip. Sometimes, these are called MCU (microcontroller unit) otherwise embedded controller.
These are mainly used in robots, vehicles, medical devices, office machines, home appliances, vending machines, mobile radio transceivers, etc.
The elements used in the microcontroller are the CPU, memory, program memory, data memory, I/O peripherals, etc. It supports other elements like ADC, DAC, serial port, and system bus.
A switch is one kind of electrical component, used to connect or disconnect the conducting lane within the circuit so that electric current can be supplied or interrupted from one conductor to another. An electromechanical device is the most common kind of switch that comprises one or more electrical contacts that are movable and connected to other circuits.
Once the set of contacts in the circuit are connected then there is a flow of current. Similarly, when the contacts are disconnected then there is no flow of current. The designing of switches can be done in different configurations and their operation can be done manually like a keyboard button, a light switch, etc. A switch can also work like a sensing element namely a thermostat to detect the location of a machine part, level of liquid, temperature, pressure, etc.
The different types of switches available in the market are rotary, toggle, pushbutton, mercury relay, circuit breaker, etc. Switches must have a particular design while using high-powered circuits to stop critical arcing once they are unlocked.
A 7-segment display is a very frequently used display module. The main function of this device is to exhibit decimal numbers in several electronic devices such as meters, clocks, information systems in public places and calculators, etc.
While connecting or designing electrical or electronic circuits, different parameter testing, as well as measuring, is very essential like the voltage, frequency, current, resistance, capacitance, etc.. Therefore, the test, as well as measurement devices, are used such as Multimeters, Oscilloscopes, Signal or Function Generators, Logic Analyzers.
The test equipment like oscilloscope is the most reliable one, used to monitor the signals which are varying continuously. By using this equipment, we can notice the changes within an electrical signal such as current, over time, and voltage. The applications of Oscilloscopes are Electronic, Industrial Medical, Automobile, Telecommunication, etc.
These are designed with CRT displays (Cathode Ray Tube) however at present approximately all these devices are digital including some superior features such as memory & storage.
A multimeter is an electronic instrument and it is a combination of Ammeter, Ohmmeter & Voltmeter. These devices are mainly used to calculate various parameters within the circuits in AC & DC like the voltage, current, etc.
Previous meters are the analog type that includes a pointing needle whereas the present meters are digital type, so these are known as DMs or Digital Multimeters. These instruments are obtainable like handheld & bench devices.
As the name suggests, a signal generator is used to generate different kinds of signals troubleshoot, and test different circuits. The signals which are most frequently generated by the signal generator are sine, triangle, square, & saw tooth. A function generator is an essential device while designing electronic circuits along with an oscilloscope and bench power supply.
An electronic circuit that directs & controls the flow of current to execute several functions like an amplification of the signal, transferring the data, and computation. It can be built with various electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes & transistors. The applications of these components are discussed below.
These components are used in consumer electronics like calculators, personal computers, printers, scanners FAX machine, etc. Home appliances like AC, refrigerator, washing machine, vacuum cleaner, microwave oven, etc.
The systems for audio &video systems like TVs, DVD players, headphones, VCRs, loudspeakers and microphones, etc. Advanced electronic devices like ATM, setup box, smartphones, barcode scanners, DVDs, MP3 player, HDD jukebox, etc.
These components are utilized in motion control, industrial automation, motor drive control, machine learning, robotics, mechatronics, technologies for converting power, biomechanics PV systems, Power electronics, applications of renewable energy, etc. The smart grid system is used to gather the data using communication technology to respond consequently depending on power usage.
It is the function of computing, intelligence & arranged electricity systems. These electronic components apply to automation in industries, motion control, etc. At present, machines are replacing humans by increasing time, cost, and productivity. Additionally, security is also measured for uncontrollable works.
Advanced devices are being implemented for recording the data & physiological study. They are verified to be more helpful in identifying diseases as well as for healing. These components are applicable in medical equipment like respiration monitors used for recognizing the condition of the patient because of the change within the pulse, body temperature, blood flow, and respiration.
The defibrillator device is used to cause electrical shock for heart muscles to bring back the heart to the regular working state. A glucose meter is used to check the level of sugar within the blood. A paceMaker is used to increase or decrease the heartbeat count.
The application of aerospace and defense includes aircraft systems, radars for military, missile launching systems, cockpit controllers, rocket launchers for space, boom barrier for military applications.
These components are used in the automotive field like anti-collision unit, cruise control, infotainment console, anti-lock braking system, airbag control, electronic control unit, window regulators & traction control.
These are the few basic electronic components with a brief explanation of the attached links. Along with electronic components symbols, a reader might have got a basic idea about these components. We are pioneers in developing electronics projects using these basic components with advanced controllers. Therefore, readers can comment below regarding any help for testing these components and practical assembling into electronic circuits.
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